Manual TCP/IP Tutorial and Technical Overview

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Introduction to TCP/IP

It is message-stream-oriented—not byte-stream-oriented like TCP—and provides multiple streams multiplexed over a single connection. It also provides multi-homing support, in which a connection end can be represented by multiple IP addresses representing multiple physical interfaces , such that if one fails, the connection is not interrupted.

It was developed initially for telephony applications to transport SS7 over IP , but can also be used for other applications. The User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless datagram protocol. Like IP, it is a best effort, "unreliable" protocol. Reliability is addressed through error detection using a weak checksum algorithm. Real-time Transport Protocol RTP is a datagram protocol that is designed for real-time data such as streaming audio and video. By convention certain well known ports are associated with specific applications.

The application layer includes the protocols used by most applications for providing user services or exchanging application data over the network connections established by the lower level protocols.

What is TCP/IP and How Does It Work?

This may include some basic network support services such as protocols for routing and host configuration. Such functions are the realm of libraries and application programming interfaces. Application layer protocols generally treat the transport layer and lower protocols as black boxes which provide a stable network connection across which to communicate, although the applications are usually aware of key qualities of the transport layer connection such as the end point IP addresses and port numbers.

Application layer protocols are often associated with particular client-server applications, and common services have well-known port numbers reserved by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IANA. Clients connecting to a service usually use ephemeral ports , i.

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The transport layer and lower-level layers are unconcerned with the specifics of application layer protocols. Routers and switches do not typically examine the encapsulated traffic, rather they just provide a conduit for it. However, some firewall and bandwidth throttling applications must interpret application data.

It is also sometimes necessary for network address translator NAT traversal to consider the application payload. User protocols are used for actual user applications. The following table shows various networking models. The number of layers varies between three and seven. Some of the networking models are from textbooks, which are secondary sources that may conflict with the intent of RFC and other IETF primary sources.

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The three top layers in the OSI model, i. While some pure OSI protocol applications, such as X. This often results in a model with five layers, where the link layer or network access layer is split into the OSI model's layers 1 and 2. The IETF protocol development effort is not concerned with strict layering. The Internet protocol suite does not presume any specific hardware or software environment. It only requires that hardware and a software layer exists that is capable of sending and receiving packets on a computer network.

As a result, the suite has been implemented on essentially every computing platform. Microcontroller firmware in the network adapter typically handles link issues, supported by driver software in the operating system. Non-programmable analog and digital electronics are normally in charge of the physical components below the link layer, typically using an application-specific integrated circuit ASIC chipset for each network interface or other physical standard.

TCP/IP Tutorial and Technical Overview

High-performance routers are to a large extent based on fast non-programmable digital electronics, carrying out link level switching. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the protocols that make up the Internet architecture. For the IP network protocol only, see Internet protocol. Set of communications protocols. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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TCP/IP Tutorial and Technical Overview

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Subsequently, the U. We believe in rough consensus and running code" Dave Clark. It was never the purpose of this memo to take a position on the OSI vs.


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As it was, many industry observers have pointed out that OSI represented the ultimate example of a sliding window ; OSI protocols were "two years away" pretty consistently between the mids to mids. None of this is meant to suggest that the NSF isn't funding Internet-class research networks anymore.

That is just the function of Internet2 , a consortium of nearly universities, corporations, and non-profit research oriented organizations working in partnership to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies for the next generation Internet. Goals of Internet2 are to create a leading edge network capability for the national research community, enable the development of new Internet-based applications, and to quickly move these new network services and applications to the commercial sector.

Really big. To paraphrase the hitchhiker, you may think that your node LAN is big, but that's just peanuts compared to the Internet. After that, the network experienced literally exponential growth. According to their chart, the Internet had nearly 30 million reachable hosts by January and just over a billion in July Dedicated residential access methods, such as cable modem and asymmetrical digital subscriber line ADSL technologies, are undoubtedly the reason that this number shot up during the decade and Internet of Things IoT devices will add more exponential growth into the s.

During the booms, the Internet was growing at a rate of about a new network attachment every half-hour, interconnecting hundreds of thousands of networks. The Internet World Stats site is about the best to start learning about the demographics of the Internet. It grew smaller and smaller during the late s as sites and traffic moved to the Internet, and was decommissioned in July The Internet is a collection of autonomous, crash-independent networks. The Internet has no single owner, yet everyone owns a portion of the Internet. The Internet has no central operator, yet everyone operates a portion of the Internet.

The Internet has been compared to anarchy, but some claim that it is not nearly that well organized! Some central authority is required for the Internet, however, to manage those things that can only be managed centrally, such as addressing, naming, protocol development, standardization, etc. Among the significant Internet authorities are:. Although not directly related to the administration of the Internet for operational purposes, the assignment of Internet domain names and IP addresses is the subject of some controversy and a lot of current activity.

Internet hosts use a hierarchical naming structure comprising a top-level domain TLD , domain and subdomain optional , and host name. The InterNIC is an interesting example of the changes that occurred in the Internet during the early days of commercialization and the withdrawl of the NSF from the network operation.

Starting in early , Network Solutions, Inc. NSI's contract ran out in April and was extended several times because no other agency was in place to continue the registration for those domains. In October , it was decided that NSI would remain the sole administrator for those domains but that a plan needed to be put into place so that users could register names with other firms pending final approval from the domain administrator.

In addition, NSI's contract was extended to September , although the registration business was opened to competition in June Although surrounded in some early controversy which is well beyond the scope of this paper! The hierarchical structure of domain names is best understood if the domain name is read from right-to-left.

Internet host names end with a top-level domain name. Worldwide generic top-level domains gTLDs include the original. Today, there are several hundred gTLDs and more are being added every day, including many using non-Lation characters aka Internationalized Domain Names. Other top-level domain names use the two-letter country codes defined in ISO standard ; munnari.

It is important to note that there is not necessarily any correlation between a country code and where a host is actually physically located. In addition, some countries allow their country codes to be used for other, commercial purposes. By way of example, the " Web site " domain.